Indiana Bicentennial

Indiana Bicentennial: Volume 2 - The Second Century



Volume 2 contains a history of the state starting in 1897 when business, invention, education, transportation, and wars were the norm.  Chapters are organized basically in chronological order.

Here are some addenda for Version 2 and some tales of people where there wasn't room to include them in the physical paper book.




The U.S. Joins the World Stage - 1897-1915
Business and Science

Albany Automobile Co. - Albany - 1907-1908 – Albany

John Tully and a small crew made the 850 Albany's sold in 1907 and 1908. They were surreys with an under-seat flat 2-cylinder air-cooled engine. The tires were of hard rubber and the false hood on the front tried in vain to make it look like a current, real automobile. It was sold as “the busy man's car” and had leather (or some say elephant hide) seats.


For information about Frank W. Flanner (& Children) of Funeral Service fame, see http://historicindianapolis.com/miscellaneous-mondays-frank-w-flanner.


World War I Era - 1916-1919

 
George Brown - Rushville - 1835-1913 - Powder monkey to admiral

For a Rushville boy to become a midshipman in the U.S. Navy at the age of 14 might not be unheard of but for one to raise to the rank of Admiral is unusual. George Brown distinguished himself as a lieutenant commanding a gunboat during the Civil War blockading Southern ports. At Palmyra Island in February, 1863 his lone ship defended itself nobly against four Confederate boats until being destroyed by cannon fire.Brown was taken prisoner but exchanged in May. The next year he commanded another gunboat at the Battle of Mobile Bay, capturing one Confederate ship.

After many assignments, notably in the Philippines and Chile, Brown was given command of the Norfolk Navy yard and promoted to rear admiral.



John W. Foster - Petersburg, Evansville - 1836-1917 - Created Taiwan and brought peace to China and Japan.

British-born Matthew Watson Foster immigrated to the U.S. at the age of 12. His first wife died while trying to rescue people from a riverboat accident. In all, two wives birthed 10 children, one John Watson Foster.

John was valedictorian of Indiana University in 1855. He then campaigned for President Lincoln to service during the Civil War, ending as a major. After the war he practiced in Evansville specializing in international law. He was the Minister to Mexico and to Russia then became, in 1892,  the Secretary of State under Benjamin Harrison. There he concentrated on Hawaii and Puerto Rico.

He was the U.S. Ambassador to Russia and then an advisor to the Chinese during the Sino-Japanese war in 1894. There he wrote the treaty ceeding Taiwan to Japan and the independence of Korea. Other jobs involved the American Red Cross and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. (See Devine, Michael J. John W. Forster: Politics and Diplomacy in the Imperial Era, 1873-1917. 1981.)




Hunter's Honey Farm - Martinsville - 1910-Present
For information about this 4th-generation aviary, see http://littleindiana.com/2015/10/hunters-honey-farm.


Depression and Preamble to World War II  - 1931-1941



Elizebeth Friedman – Huntington - 1892-1980
William Friedman – 1891-1969 - A tale of Bootlegging, Shakespeare, NSA and Cryptanalysts


To answer your first question: Elizebeth Smith's mother in Huntington is said to have put that “e” there because she didn't want her daughter to be called Eliza.
Born in Huntington, Elizebeth attained a B.A. From Hillsdale College in Michigan in 1915 where she showed a talent for languages. Her first job was at a private research center in Riverbank, Illinois where she was to find a basis that Shakespeare's words were written by Francis Bacon. Work by another woman with this task was thought to be persuasive and the matter was dropped for almost 30 years.

Before World War I, Riverbank was the only operating facility capable of decoding messages. At the start of the war it was the government's de-facto cryptology center.
Wolf Friedman was born in the little known country of Bessarabia which has been part of Moldavia, the Russian Empire, Romania, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic and is now Moldova again. Sorry to get carried away. The family emigrated to the U.S. in 1892 to escape Jewish repression and Wolf became William.

The two were married in 1917 and in 1920 both left Riverbank and she became the head of the U.S. Treasury Department Bureau of Prohibition and Customs. Radio had come into common use and was used by rum and drug smugglers in coded messages. Elizebeth's team was able to provide results in time to be useful to the Coast Guard. They are credited with decryption of over 12,000 messages.

In 1921 William became the chief cryptanalyst for the War Department. While there he wrote quite a few papers on the subject – in fact he is credited with coining the term “cryptanalyst”. He stayed at this post until 1941 then retired to rest his nerves.
Duty called and William was back to work in 1949 as head of the Code Division of the Armed Forces Security Agency, which became the NSA. In 1956 he retired for good and wrote The Shakespearian Ciphers Examined with Elizebeth, which debunked the Bacon-Shakespeare theories.

Elizebeth took on many tasks including the design of the security for the International Monetary Fund. William's Bletchley Park Diary has recently been released.



Alice Hamilton – Fort Wayne - 1869-1970 - Occupational health pioneer who helped get the lead out of our tanks


Born and raised in Fort Wayne to an affluent family, Alice and her older sister Edith both attended Miss Porter's Finishing School for Young Ladies in Farmington, Connecticut. She then went to the University of Michigan where she received her doctor's degree when only twenty-four (right). After four more years of study in Munich, Leipzig and Johns Hopkins she settled as a professor at Northwestern University in Chicago.

In Chicago, Hamilton became very involved in Jane Addams' Hull House and through that became interested in injuries and illnesses caused by unsafe working conditions among the poor. Many of her published papers were helpful in the emerging fields of toxicology and industrial hygiene.

In 1919, she became a professor of Industrial Medicine at Harvard Medical School, the first female faculty member there. She also consulted with the U.S. Department of Labor. After WWI she worked with institutions as wide-ranging as General Electric and the USSR.
Specific occupational problems she addressed include lead poisoning, repetitive impact injuries (ie. air hammers), carbon monoxide emissions, and “dope poisoning” in the manufacture of cloth airplane bodies and wings during WWI. Later she became a prominent critic of tetraethyl lead use in gasoline – something that did not bear fruit until the 1990s.
She was labeled a supporter of communism by HUAC in 1949. In 1963 she was a strong protesting voice against the Vietnam war. In 1995 she made it onto a commemorative postal stamp, we think that a better use of paper and glue than Li'l Abner and Dick Tracy who were also on stamps that year.


Rolla Harger – Indianapolis – 1890-1983

Breathalyzer inventor

Rolla Neil Harger was a professor at Indiana University when he came up with his main claim to fame - his “drunkometer” that tested alcohol in the breath. His 1936 invention worked by the use of sulfuric acid as the media to absorb alcohol. It has now been replaced by other, more portable methods but still not quite reliable. Harger went on to be on a panel that wrote legislation authorizing results of his invention to be used in court.




One More Bonus Bad Guy


Willie Mason - Indianapolis

August 22, 1934 - Willie Mason was in the Hamilton County Jail, being for the murder of an Indianapolis police officer - one of "a gang of machine gunners" that held up a bus garage. When caught in Kentucky he had been wounded and had to have his right foot amputated. When a friend sent him an artificial leg in jail it had hidden inside hacksaw blades and other items that he and four other prisoners used to break out of the jail by sawing through eleven window bars. Six prisoners were being held at the time and the only one not to have escaped was a 70-year old man who slept through the whole thing.



N.K. Hurst Co. – Indianapolis – 1938-Present - Dried “beens”

Needham King Hurst was a sales rep for the C.D. Kenney Co. of Baltimore which handled tea and coffee. In 1938 he decided to start a business of his own and began distributing 5-pound packages of dried beans. They were sold through the A&P, Winn-Dixie and Kroger stores.
In the 1960's they added a ham flavoring to create Hurst's HamBeens and in 1986 they came out with HamBeens 15 Bean Soup. Now their portfolio contains over 20 varieties including cajun, black bean, and lentil soups. The company has grown to be the largest producer of dry bean soups in the country. It sells 15 million pounds of the dried beans annually, and its flagship product, the 15 Bean Soup, is available in all 50 states.

(This was previously in Volume 1).


World War II - 1941-1946


Don Moon – Kokomo - 1894-1944 - In charge at Utah Beach

Kokomo-born Don Pardee Moon graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy fourth in his class in 1916, just in time to serve on WWI batttleships Arizona, Colorado, and Nevada. By 1934 he commanded a destroyer and in 1941 was a captain in the North Africa landings in 1942.


In 1944 he was promoted to rear admiral and given charge of the landings on Utah Beach during D-Day. Two months after the invasion of Northern France he was sent to Italy to participate in an invasion of Southern France but shot himself with his service revolver instead. The Navy said his suicide was due to “battle fatigue”.
 


Addenda. YouTube has has a short 1945 video about penicillin making at the United States Powder Co. in Terre Haute.


 
Consumerism vs Communism - 1945-1960



Delco Electronics – Kokomo - 1956-Present - The first smart bomb

Howard Pyle and Andrew Tynan invented the first steerable aerial bomb in 1949 while working at Delco. It had fins and an electronic aiming control that used photo-electric cells controlling the fins. We have not been able to find anything about the details except a patent application.


Viet Nam and the '60s - 1961-1970


Addenda. Page 255. Walter Cronkite's The Twentieth Century devoted a half hour to Pop Buell in 1965. it can be seen at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2DWAK6VG70.

Addenda. Page 261. The Schnitzelbank in Jasper is in the construction stage of starting their own brewery.

Addenda. Page 275. Finish Line racked up a reported $32 million loss and plan to close up to 150 stores of the 600 franchises in the next four years.



The Rest of the 20th Century - 1971-2000




Tubten Jigme Norbu – Bloomington - 1922-2008 - The Dalai Lama's activist brother

Born in Tengtset, Tibet, and trained as a monk until the People's Republic of China took over the country and he went into exile in 1950. During the next years he settled in Bloomington, wrote books about the history of Tibet, and was active in speeches around the U.S.

Norbu's younger brother, Tenzin Gyatso (1935-present), is the 14th and current Dalai Lama.


     

Agriculture -Nurseries and Florists
Smith and Young Greenhouse – Cumberland - 1901-1972

Carl Sonnenschmidt and Herman Junge moved from Germany to Cumberland and started a greenhouse. It is thought to have been the largest rose nursery in Indiana.



Retail - Grocers
Lewisville General Store – Lewisville - 1876-1982

Henry Lewis was a farmer and carpenter who built (or bought) a grist mill near what is now Lewisville. In 1876 he started selling general merchandise, replacing a store owned by Miles Hobson and F.C. Stillwell. The Lewis family operated the business until 1982. The town's name of Lewisville was already used before the store started.


 
Manufacturing of Agricultural Equipment

The Implement Blue Book of 1911 listed quite a few Indiana companies of interest. Wagon makers are covered in the Transportation section of Volume 2.

City
Company / Brands
Products
Anderson
F. Anderson Motor Co.
    Westerfield
Well drills, gasoline engines
Indiana Silo Co.
Silos
Lambert Gasoline Engine Co.
    Buckeye
Gasoline engines
Reliable Machine Co.
Gasoline engines
Angola
Angola Engine & Foundry Co.
Gasoline engines
Auburn
Zimmerman Mfg. Co.
    Monarch
Tanks, towers
Bluffton
Red Cross Mfg. Co.
    I.X.L., Leader, Red Cross, Victor
Pumps, feed mills, tanks, towers, wind mills
Butler
The Butler Co.
    Butler Improved, Texas Pattern
Pumps, tanks, towers, weeders, wind mills
Cambridge City
National Drill Co.
Cultivators, grain drills
Columbus
Caldwell Mfg. Co.
    Janney, Square Deal
Feed mills, feed mills, fertilizer spreaders
Reeves & Co.
    Farmers Friend (under license)
Oil-burning steam engines, gasoline engines, steam engines, clover hullers, baling presses, corn shellers, straw stackers, threshers.
Crown Point
Crown Point Mfg. Co.
(Letz Mg. Co.)
    Bull Dog, Combine, Letz
Cob crushers and grinders, feed mills
Deedsville
Harry J. See
    Best
Road graders
East Chicago
Famous Mfg. Co.
    Champion, Gem
Gasoline engines, baling presses
Evansville
Blount Plow Works
    Blue River, Famous, Pearl River,
    Royal Beauty, True Blue
Cultivators, plows
Davidson-Dietrich Plow Co.
    Davidson, Southern Girl,
    Southern Queen
Cultivators, stalk cutters, potato diggers, harrows, plows
Hartig-Becker Plow Co.
    Acme, Yazoo River
Plows
Heilman Machine Works
Kerosene engines, steam engines, saw mills, threshers
Vulcan Plow Co.
    Rose Clipper, Urie, Victoria
Potato diggers, plows
Fort Wayne
F.G. Gauntt Mfg. Co.
Concrete mixing machines
Indiana Road Machine Co.
    National
Ditching machines, plows, road graders
Goshen
Goshen Mfg. Co.
    Boyer's Cross Draft, Death Grip,
    Hercules, New Hercules
Hay carriers
Goshen Churn & Ladder Co.
    Goshen Oval
Churns
Kelly Foundry & Machine Co.
    American, Butler, Goshen,
    Pease, , Tiger, Victor
Barrel carts, hand carts, feed cookers, gasoline engines, hog scalders, pumps, tanks, wheels
National Dairy Machine Co.
    Industrial, National
Knife grinders, cream separators
Star Tank Co.
    Ideal, Standard, Stutz
Tanks
Hammond
American Potato Machinery Co.
    New American, Schreiber
Potato cutters, potato diggers, potato planters, sprayers
Champion Potato Machinery Co.
    O.K. Champion
Peanut diggers, potato diggers, potato hillers, peanut planters, potato planters, spotato sorters
Liberty Cow-Milker Co.
Milking machines
Indianapolis
American Buncher Mfg. Co.
    Black Cat
Clover bunchers, harrows
E.C. Atkins & Co.
Punches, saws, log hauling wagons
Capital Gas Engine Co.
    Gem
Gasoline engines, pumps
Nordyke & Marmon Co.
    Diamond, Dixie,
    Farm and Plantation, Favorite,
    Harrison, Model, New Era,
    Nordyke, Perfection
Corn cleaners and shellers, feed mills, grinding mills
Prairie Mfg. Co.
    Electric, Eureka,
    Everitt's Man-Weight,
    Invincible, National, New Idea
Cultivators, garden drills, potato planters, grain seeders, sprayers
Russell Wind Stacker Co.
Straw stackers
Sattley Stacker Co.
Straw stackers
Kendallville
Flint & Walling Mfg. Co.
    Fast Mail, Hoosier, Leader, Star
Fodder cutters, well drills, gasoline engines, pumps, feed mills, timber saws, tanks, towers, wind mills
Raber & Lang. Mfg. Co.
    Crescent
Concrete mixing machines
Lafayette
B.F. Biggs Pump Co.
Pumps, cream separators
Lafayette Fence & Machine Co.
Fence machines
La Porte
M. Rumely Co.
    Oil Pull, Rumely Ideal, Ruth
Band cutters, gasoline engines, kerosene engines, steam engines, clover hullers, straw stackers, threshers
Niles & Scott Co.
Wheels
Lebanon
Dairy Cream Separator Co.
    Dairy Queen
Cream separators
Liberty
Rude Bros. Mfg. Co.
    Indiana, O.I.C., Successor
Cultivators, grain drills, fertilizer spreaders
Ligonier
Green & Lyon
    Haney
Gasoline engines
D. Stuzman
Fruit evaporators
Marion
American Drill Co.
Clod crushers, grain drills, gasoline engines
H. & H. Fence Clamp Co.
Fence streters
Middlebury
Pioneer Mfg. Co.
Feed cookers, tanks
Mishawaka
Mishawaka Plow Co.
    Acme, Clark, Clark Jr., Clipper,
    Dandy, Eagle, Emporer, Gazelle,
    Hoosier Belle, Little Wonder,
    Monarch, New Land, Princess,
    Scotch Clipper, Scotchman
Cultivators, plows
Perkins Wind Mill Co.
Feed mills, tanks, wind mills
Mount Vernon
Keck-Gonnerman Co.
    K.G.
Steam engines, tanks, threshers
Nappanee
Brown Bros. Mfg. Co.
    Napanee
Pumps, tanks
Hess Mfg. Co.
    Daisy, Economy, Gardener's Pride,
    Hammond, Reversible, Superior
Corn shock compressors, cultivators, feed cookers, garden drills, grain drills, plows
New Castle
Safety Shredder Co.
Corn huskers
North Manchester
Little Giant Seeder Co.
Seeders
Peru
Model Gas Engine Co.
Pumps
Spring Grain Drill Mfg. Co.
Grain drills
Plymouth
Clizbe Bros. Mfg. Co.
    Royal
Knife grinders
Richmond
American Seeding Machine Co.
    Dexter, Empire, Gem, Hoosier,
    Hornet, Kentucky,
    Richmond Champion, Superior
Furrowing disks, grain drills, check rowers, cultivators, feed cutters, fertilizer broadcasters, fodder cutters, bean and pea drills, corn drills, grain drills, cane mills, corn planters, combination corn and bean planters, pea planters, peanut planters, broadcast seeders
Elliott & Reid Co.
    Columbia, Royal
Portable corn cribs, fencing machines and stretchers
Gaar, Scott & Co.
    Sattley (under license), Tiger,
    Queen of the Rice Field,
    Rice Queen, Uncle Tom
Band cutters, gasoline engines, kerosene engines, steam engines, clover hullers, saw mills, straw stackers, tanks, threshers, scales
Richmond Machine Works
Saw mills
Robinson & Co.
    Bonanza, Bricker, Duplex, Eureka,
    New Bonanza
Band cutters, gasoline engines, kerosene engines, steam engines, clover hullers, baling presses, straw stackers, threshers, scales
The Wayne Works
    Richmond Champion, Surprise
Grain drills, combined corn and cotton planters, broadcast seeders
Shelbyville
Shelbyville Foundry & Machine Works
    Shelby
Gasoline engines, feed mills
Rising Sun
William Clore's Sons
    Wellhausen
Plows
South Bend
Birdsell Mfg. Co.
Clover hullers (they invented them) (below)
N.E. Bowsher Co.
    Combination, Globe
Cob crushers and grinders, feed mills
Clover Leaf Mixer Co.
Concrete mixing machines
Ideal Concrete Machinery Co.
Concrete block machines
Iwan Bros.
    Iwan's Perfection, Vaughn
Post hole and well augers, hay knives
Oliver Chilled Plow Works
    Bonanza, Bonanza Jr., Jewel,
    New Century, New Departure,
    Oliver-Marsh, Rival
Cultivators, potato hillers, drills, plows, corn planters, cotton planters
South Bend Chilled Plow Co.
    Badger, Casaday, Challenge, Eli,
    Garland, Garland Jr., Hi Tyee,
    Little Giant, Mapes, Malta,
    Milwaukee, Mogul, Nelson,
    New Casaday, New Market, Queen,
    Suwannee Clipper, Texas,
    Texas-Casaday, Victor
Hand carts, cultivators, stalk cutters, grain drills, harrows, plows, cotton planters
Studebaker Corp.
Barrel carts, dump carts, hand carts, sleds
Urbana
Cyclone Seeder Co.
    Champion Jr. Chicago,
    Little Wonder
Grain and grass seeders
Vernon
Rood & Rogers Mfg. Co.
    Surprise
Rakes
Vincennes
Hartman Mfg. Co.
    Acme, Acme Improved, Acme Jr.,
    Best, Hartman Cotton, Hawkins,
    Holt, Pilot, Tip Top, Zenith
Stalk cutters, plow coulters, cultivators, harrows, plows

 
Alcohol -Breweries




Rettig & Cole, James O. Cole, Peru Brewery – Peru - 1859-1908

Friends George Rettig and James Omar Cole (right) went prospecting in California in 1850. Like most '49ers gold was elusive and Rettig returned to Peru, sold his father's bakery and opened an ice company that morphed into a brewery. Cole had opened a store in California and when he returned to Peru in 1867 he had saved $30,000 – enough to buy into George's brewery.

Rettig sold his interest to Cole in 1878 when production reached almost 5,000 bbls. By 1905 production was up to 12,000 bbls and Cole changed the name to the Peru Brewery. Brands were Golden Export, White Seal Export, Wiedersehen Special Brew, and Bock.
Brewing ended with local option prohibition in 1908. By that time the Cole family owned the Cole Brothers Circus which merged with the Clyde Beatty Circus and toured until 1950. Cole Porter was J.O. Cole's grandson.



Korn & Berg, Berg Bros. & Co., Crown Brewing Co. - Crown Point, Hammond - 1860-1914

Julius Korn and John Berg were the principals here until the L. Sonnenschein Co. of Chicago bought the operation in 1894 and re-incorporated under the Crown Brewing name. They built a new four-story building that opened in 1898 and took the brewery from 500 bbl capacity to 20,000 bbls near the end.

Sonnenschein moved the company to Hammond “partly due to an environmental problem caused by draining the hops into Beaver Dam Ditch.” They seem to have not recovered from the expenses and inconveniences of that move.



Nicholas Bader, Crystal Spring Brewery, Guenther Bros. – La Porte - 1859-1918
Nicholas Bader started this brewery and John B. Puissant bought it before 1879, bringing in Frank Dick, late of the C. Dick & Bro. brewery of Mishawaka (later Kamm & Schellinger). They sold to Fritz K. and John J. Guenther in 1896. Herman Zerweck, a brewer from Wűrttemberg, Germany bought into the company in 1911. Peak production, before they closed at Prohibition, was 7,000 bbls.


Volmer, Hochgesang, Habig, Excelsior Brewery – Jasper - 1849-1916

When he joined the army, Arbagast R. Volmer evidently sold to Edward A. Hochgesang the brewing equipment he used for homebrewing and minor off-the-record sales. Volmer, alas, did not return from the Civil War, dying of diarrhea in 1862.

Hochgesang, a local brick manufacturer built a new brick building at Eleventh and Main Streets taking a full year for the construction. He started brewing in 1861. When Hochgesang died in 1884 his brother-in-law, Anton Habig and Habig's brother-in-law Martin Eckstein bought the firm from his widow.

Habig had previously run a “peddling wagon” between Jasper and New Albany before becoming a wagon driver for Hochgesang. He bought out Eckstein in 1889 and renamed the business the Excelsior Brewery. The Excelsior building looks fairly dilapidated in this 1905 picture but they made about 2,000 bbls each year and employed six people.
Habig and Eckstein also owned the Queen City Saloon across Main Street from the brewery which, after many owners and much remodeling, still stands as Snap's Steakhouse.



J.B. Garnier Malt House and Brewery – Lawrenceburg - 1855-1916

John B. Garnier immigrated from France pennyless and began a malt house in Lawrenceburg in 1840 selling to distilleries in Aurora and Cincinnati. This led to starting a distillery which led to a small brewery (10bbl system) at Third and Shipping Streets. When he needed a larger capacity he bought a brewery in Lawrenceburg that Kosmos Fredrick started in 1850.
Once the original building wasn't needed to make beer, John and his brother August built a new, bigger one on that location. They moved back there in 1866, selling the Fredrick plant. Their new plant was 100x100 feet with three lagering cellars, malting rooms and a fifty-bbl brewing system. They eventually had fifteen employees - labor of which cost the company $10,000 per year.



Garnier died in 1897 and his son-in-law, Victor Oberting took over the business. He was elected an Indiana state representative in the 1904 through 1908. The brewery closed just prior to prohibition but it seems they didn't close completely.
Lawrenceburg - Revenue collector poured into the Ohio River 470 barrels of beer seized at the Garnier Brewery here under the prohibition law. - Fort Wayne News and Sentinel, October 21, 1918.


Indiana Brewing Association, Kiley Brewing, Peter Fox Brewing – Marion - 1897-1949


A consortium of eight businessmen incorporated the Indiana Brewing Association in 1897 with a $100,000 outlay toward the building, 9½ acres of land and equipment including a bottling line. After mechanical refrigeration was added in 1899 at a cost of $375,000 it was considered the largest and best equipped brewery in northern Indiana. The first brewer, John Woelfel, was brought from the Columbia Brewing Co. of Logansport.
The new house proper will be five stories high, furnished with all modern machinery. The brew kettle will have a capacity of 200 barrels daily, and will be steam jacketed. The mash tub will be 18 feet in diameter and 9 feet high; the hop jack will be 14 feet in diameter and 6 feet high.
The beer storage building will contain five rooms 48x93 feet and 14 feet high, where a temperature of 34 degrees will be maintained the year around. The hop room will be 20x20 feet in size; the ice storage will be 20x40 and 8 feet high; the cooperage shop will be 132x20 feet; the boiler house in the rear will contain 4 boilers of the latest horizontal, tubular patterns, of 125 horse-power.
The office building will be two stories high divided into general and private offices, with genial Jim Corbett in charge. - Marion Leader Tribune, Mar 9, 1897
Brands included Bavarian, Budweiser, Indiana Beer, Jung's All-Malt Pilsner, Pride of the State, Special Brew, Tiger and Wiener. William Jung, an immigrant from Germany was the brewer. Peak output was 40,000 bbls.
They soon became embroiled in the temperance movement flooding Indiana. In 1909 they bought the Marion newspaper, The Dawn, which had editorialized in favor of the drys. Local support of the paper declined when the editorial stance changed and it closed in 1910. By 1913 Grant County went dry; the IBA as well as an estimated one hundred taverns closed. It was the first major brewery in Indiana to close by temperance forces. - Fort Wayne News, June 26, 1913
The IRS dumped all the finished beer in the warehouse into the Mississinewa River.

… the river foamed up as the beer was dumped and people came … with buckets and dipped the beer out of the river while others got on their hands and knees and drank from the river. Still others were swimming in it. It was a sight to see.” - Marion Leader Tribune, July 4, 1913

The building became a meat packing plant until Robert and Philip Kiley bought it in 1933 and refurbished the brewery. $250,000 in stock was sold for this venture and a 250 bbl system was installed. Capacity peaked at 260,000 bbls with more than 100 employees. Distribution went as to central Indiana and to major cities that did not have enough breweries including Chicago, Kansas City, Memphis, Miami and Nashville.

Kiley brands included Patrick Henry “The Beer with an Ale Base”, Old Dublin Style Stout “Old Irish Flavor”, Limerick Ale “The Finest Ale Brewed”, Original Old Time Half & Half “½ Ale + ½ Stout = 1 Good Beer”, Bock, Stout, and October Ale.
A week ago last Wednesday, the morning newspaper carried a list of the high salaried men of America as reported by the federal government. Among the names of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Edsel Ford, and others appeared the listing of a George W. Deegan drawing a salary of over $158,000 during 1934 as sales manager of the Kiley Brewing Co., Marion, Indiana. This report causing considerable wonder among stockholders of the brewery, who have never yet received any dividends on their fancy paper purchases.
… Stockholders interviewed by the Post-Democrat state that they would like very much to enjoy the prosperity indicated by the Kiley Brewing Co. and would gladly trade their stock certificates for any part of the sales manager’s salary. - Muncie Post-Democrat, Jan 17, 1936
In 1941 Peter Fox Brewing of Chicago bought Kiley, making it Fox's fourth plant. Their brands included variations of Fox Deluxe and Silver Fox. Enlargements at the other Fox plants made the Marion operation redundant and they stopped production in 1949.



Ingermann Brewing Co. - Cambridge City - 1863-1908



Henry Ingermann moved from Germany and started a brewery at his household in Vandalia, Indiana (now part of Cambridge City) at the present corner of Vandalia Avenue and Delaware Street. He sold it in pint and quart bottles with rubber stoppers, never making much more then 500 bbls in any year.

Sons William H. and John M. took over the brewery from 1893 until it closed due to a local-option prohibition on sales.



Market Street Brewery - New Albany - 1856-1891
Market Street Brewery - New Albany - 1856-1884
Julius Gebhard & Co. Enterprise Brewery - 1884-1886
New Albany Brewing Co. - 1886-1887
Gebhard & Bate Brewing Co.
- 1887-1889
National Brewery - 1888-1891


This section taken from Hoosier Beer.

 
Was located on the west side of Tenth between Market and Spring Streets
Peter Buchheit was born Jean Pierre Buchheit in Schweyen, Lorraine, France. In 1847, at the age of 27, he moved to New Albany and later started the Market Street Brewery behind his home.

Ten years later the brewery occupied three buildings – two 30 x 60 feet and one 18 x 60 feet. It covered nearly the entire block between Market and Spring Streets. It employed four people who roomed with the family. (Floyd County Gazetteer of 1868)
A fire in 1875 did considerable damage but they immediately rebuilt with brick buildings, iron roofs, an elevator, and new equipment. In 1879 the brewery produced almost 3,500 bbls. (United States Brewer’s Association – Beer, Its History and its Economic Value, 1880)
This morning at 6 ½ o’clock, the alarm of fire was sounded and it was discovered that the extensive brewery of Peter Buchheit was on fire.
When the alarm was given the three engines, the Sanderson, Jefferson and Washington, were prompt in action, and did efficient work in subduing the flames, which required three quarters of an hour. The cause of the fire is not known.
The citizens gathered from all quarters and rendered timely assistance. The building contained two thousand bushels of malt and a quantity of barley. The basement was filled with beer, which will be damaged by becoming heated. The malt, which was consumed, is valued at $2,500, barley valued at $1,000. - September 22, 1875, the New Albany Ledger Standard
Lagering cellars, included in this renovation, could hold 609 tons of ice. Market Street had another off-site icehouse that held 1,000 tons. A malting kiln was also on site. (New Albany Ledger Standard, February 21st 1877)

Peter died in 1877 and the business was taken over by his wife Barbara. She was an immigrant from Bavaria whom Peter married in New Albany in 1850.

In January 1884 Barbara sold the equipment to the Main Street Brewing Co. and the building to Julius Gebhard and a gentleman named Helmekamp (or Helmecamp); it became the Enterprise Brewery. (New Albany Ledger, Jan 26, 1884)

Two years later Enterprise was effectively bought out by Charles Burger and Herman Kirchhoff. Gebhard became the Superintendent. His son, Frank Gebhard, then 21 years of age, was involved in this new firm that was renamed the New Albany Brewing Co. It started with a capital stock of $15,000. (New Albany Ledger, June 24, 1886)

They stopped using the malting kilns at the plant, buying malt, instead of barley (possibly from the Falls City Malt House of Louisville). Capacity at that time was about 3,000 bbls.
Burger and Kirchhoff retired from the firm in October 1886. E. R. Bate, Julius Gebhard, and one other person ended up with the company and changed the name to Gebhard & Bate Brewing Co. however they did not properly register the new corporation name. This became important when a debt to the Cincinnati Cooperage Company was held on appeal to be personally owed by Bate.

Andrew Schlosser bought the brewery in 1888 and renamed it the National Brewery, but this effort did not last long. In 1899 he tried again with the State Street Brewery.
After 1891 the Market Street site was used as the Nevian ice factory for a while. Two buildings are still standing. The icehouse was an apartment building for some time but is now vacant. The vaulted fermenting and storage cellars are still under this structure. A church now occupies the storage and grain building. (Ted Fulmore, Our History in New Albany. 2006)



Norton & Sullivan, T.M. Norton Brewing Co. – Anderson - 1866-1940

Native Irishman Thomas M. Norton worked for Louis Williams brewing in Union City, Indiana then moved to Anderson to start his own brewery with Patrick Sullivan on the west bank of the White River, now the 700 block of Central Avenue.

Michael Crowley, Norton's son-in-law replaced Sullivan and in 1882 left the company. Norton renamed it T.M. Norton Brewing Co. at that time. Thomas retired in 1896 at the age of 61 and turned the company over to his sons, Martin C. and William J. They added move buildings and a 60-ton ice making machine, then in 1910 put in new updated equipment bringing capacity up to 25,000 bbls with 75 employees.

Brands were Old Pal, Gold Band, Old Stock, Export, and Export Dry. During Prohibition they made soft drinks and sold ice but in 1923 were caught making real beer that was shipped to the Cincinnati market. The T-Men seized the plant and William J. Norton was sentenced to prison in Atlanta.



After Prohibition they tried to re-start but after a year closed the doors again. Another attempt in 1937 lasted until 1940.



Indiana Brewing Co., Pank-Weinmann Brewing Co. – New Albany - 1847-1899

Colonel Joseph Metcalfe started a brewery in New Albany in 1847 which he sold to William Grainger in 1856 who sold it to Paul Reising in 1857. Reising sold it to Martin Kaelin in 1861 who renamed it Main Street Brewery. This was a two-story building of 40x60 feet with two lagering cellars. It employed five men who made 3,600 bbls by 1868.

Louis Schmidt, an immigrant from Prussia moved to New Albany to be the brewmaster at the Paul Reising brewery in 1878. He left there and bought the Main Street Brewery in 1883. Schmidt sold the business to Jacob Hornung and George Washington Atkins in 1883; both had worked at the Market Street Brewery. They planned expansion and bought the equipment from the Market Street Brewery which was put in storage. Atkins left the firm in 1886 and Hornung added an ice-making machine and drilled a deep well for a better water supply. These investments of over $5,000 left no money to install the Market Street equipment. Hornung couldn't make a profit and shot himself in the head in 1889.
Later that year, Louisville brewing people Gustav Weinmann, J.H. Pank (right), and E.W. Herman, president of the Kentucky Malting Co. bought the facilities and renamed it the Indiana Brewing Co.

They invested to enlarge the plant with a malt room and install the Market Street equipment capable of making 150 bbls per batch. In 1895 Herman bowed out and the company was renamed the Pank-Weinmann Brewing Co. This partnership never made a profit and they sold the operation to the Paul Reising in 1899 who couldn't keep it going for even the next year.




Spring Brewery, Peter Engel, Engel & Nadorff Bros. - New Albany - 1865-1907

Anton Sohn started this company and his wife, Louisa inherited it in 1874. Frank Nadorff bought the business in 1877 and his Frank's wife, Threcy inherited it in 1884. Peter E. Engel bought it from her in 1891. By then it included city water, a grain warehouse, wash house, steam heated mash room, beer cellar, ice house, wagon shed, and a pond. Capacity reached 3,000 bbls annually.

The Nadorff family had owned a brewery in Louisville since 1884 and in 1901 they sold it to the Central Consumers Corp. of Louisiana and bought back into the Peter Engel brewery. The Nadorrffs now own the Anheuser-Busch distributorship in New Albany.



Becker & Beuter, Tell City Brewing Co. – Tell City - 1858-1918

Tell City was founded by the Swiss Colonization Society of Cincinnati, a society of German-speaking families from Switzerland. They wanted a city of their own and the area at Tell City proved almost ideal. Another suitable location in Kentucky had been rejected because of slavery in that state. By 1857 the town was platted and shares were sold in exchange for plots of land and leftover money was used to fund start-up companies.

Charles Becker came from Prussia to Cincinnati and followed the Swiss Colonization Society to Tell city when it opened. There he and Alois Beuter opened a brewery with money borrowed from the Society. Beuter left the partnership the next year and Becker continued making common beer.

Common beer is considered a product of southern Indiana and Kentucky. It was made with about seventy percent barley, thirty percent corn and some roasted malt or artificial coloring to darken the output. Fermentation was by a sour mash process where some young beer from a previous batch was added to the new batch, bringing with it live yeast for fermentation, thus keeping a consistent flavor. This process is still used for sourdough bread, whiskey and some Belgian beers. The brewer's term for this is “krausening.” The end result would be a somewhat sour, rather than bitter beer. Leter when imported yeast came from Europe, true ales and lagers could be made.

In 1870 Becker built a three-story brick building for $3,000 and switched to making lager. Still, it was impressive but still a fairly small operation; in 1879 They made just 430 bbls.
Gustavus Huthsteiner, another Prussian immigrant took over the company when Charles died in 1894. He sold it in 1897 to a corporation that renamed it Tell City Brewing Co., enlarged the plant and started bottling. They made 6,000 bbls each year of AC, Primo Lager, and Bock until they closed at the start of Prohibition.



Rettig & Alber, Wabash Brewing Co. - Wabash - 1853-1915


Franz Anton Rettig, from Hesse-Cassel, Germany formed this brewery with Wintz Stanley. The original brewery was located in what had been said to be a shed behind Rettig's house.

Rettig's brother-in-law, Phillip Alber, an immigrant from Lichtenstein was home-brewing in Wabash and joined the firm in 1866. Together they bought 2½ acres at Cass and Alber Streets in Wabash and built a larger brewery. By 1879 they had grown to 20,000 bbls.

Rettig died in 1896 and Alber changed the name to the Wabash Brewing Co. which he ran until he was 83 years old. His son, Jacob Alber took over making Wabash and Extra Lager Beer.

The “Beardsley Law” of 1907 denied customers the ability to buy directly from a brewery, only through licensed dealers, of which there were none in Wabash due to a county option. They tried to get around this law by selling through a Fort Wayne dealer who would deliver it back to Wabash. The prosecutor in Wabash blocked this proposal and the Wabash Brewing Company, after limping along for a few years went out of business before state-wide prohibition came into effect.

GETS AROUND THE LAW
THE WABASH BREWERY SELLS THROUGH FORT WAYNE MAN.
People Wanting Home Beer Send Orders Here and Delivery is Then Made.
The recent decision of the supreme court, construing the Beardsley law as preventing Indiana breweries from retailing beer, hit the Wabash Brewery rather hard, but through a clever scheme, in which Albert Weber, of this city, acts as agent, the concern expects to still retain its large Wabash trade and not suffer at all as a consequence of this decision. Under the new plan Wabash parties are to give their orders to Mr. Weber, who is the proprietor of the Weber hotel here, and he, in turn, will deliver the goods in Wabash free of charge.
The plan has been broached to the Wabash customers of the company In the following advertisement Inserted in the newspapers there: Wabash Beer For Sale. Since the decision of the supreme court, holding that a brewery cannot sell to a customer, I am buying and will continue to buy beer of the manufacture of the Wabash Brewing company in bottles and cooperage. I am prepared to sell such beer at my licensed place of business at Fort Wayne to you if you should see fit to favor me with your orders which will have my attention. All goods will be delivered to you In Wabash free of charge, for delivery. I have employed Sam Snyder to solicit and collect for me In Wabash.
Thanking you In advance for any favors, I beg to remain, Yours respectfully, ALBERT WEBER.
Fort Wayne News, Dec 21, 1909



Walter-Raupfer Brewing Co. (Eagle Brewery) – Columbia City - 1869-1916

William Walter and H. Schaper picked a spot on the banks of the Blue River for their brewery. Ten years later Schaper sold his interest to Benjamin Raupfer of Baden, Germany and Fredrick Walter of Mansfield, Ohio (not related to William). In that year they sold 1,086 bbls. After ten more years Raupfer sold his interest to Anton Meyer (of Terre Haute Brewing Co. fame) but the Walter & Raupfer name they were using was so identifiable they kept the name, substituting a dash for the ampersand. Locally the brewery was always known as the Eagle Brewery for their mascot of a spread-winged eagle on a keg.

Fredrick Walter became quite a prominent citizen, on the town board and director of the Whitley County Building and Loan Association, the Huntington, Columbia City and Northern Electric Railway, and the Harper Buggy Factory.

Brands included Select and Extra Export. At their peak they sold 9,000 bbls. Local option laws turned Fort Wayne and surrounding counties dry in by 1916.



Zorn Brewing Co. – Michigan City - 1871-1918, 1933-1938

Philip Zorn Jr. was the son of a brewer in Wűrzburg, Bavaria who immigrated at the age of 18. He worked at a brewery in Illinois from 1855 until he started his own in Michigan City. By 1880 he was making 3,000 bbls annually. He became a prosperous man, a city councilman and the founder of the Citizens Bank of Michigan City.

The company passed to Philip's sons Robert and Charles who built a new brewhouse in 1903 and reached almost 15,000 bbls by the time of Prohibition. During the dry years they made the Zoro brand of soda pop. After Prohibition they changed the name to Dunes Brewing, possibly because of a court action against Zorn in 1935 for selling beer to unlicensed companies. They made Grain State, Golden Grain and Pilsenzorn brands.
The office building and parts of the brewery complex still stand and were made into now-abandoned offices.


Other Breweries & Distilleries of 1912 from the Annual Report of the State Bureau of Inspection
American Brewing - Indianapolis
Commercial Distilling - Terre Haute
Jung Brewing - Indianapolis
Edelman Distillery - Evansville
Fred Miller Brewing - Indianapolis
Greendale Distilling - Lawrenceburg
Muncie Brewing - Muncie
Merchants Distilling - Terre Haute
Vaughn & Casey - Crawfordsville ( P.J. Vaughn)
Murphy Distilling - Vincennes

Old Vincennes Distilling - Vincennes
Rossville Distilling - Greendale
Star Distilling - Vincennes
Tennessee Distilling - Evansville
White Swan Distilling - Indianapolis

 
Communications - Newspapers

Martinsville Reporter Times – Martinsville - 1870-Present


Mooresville Times – Mooresville - 1872-Present - Typical regional town papers
The Martinsville Gazette was a Republican-oriented newspaper that dropped its political leanings in 1870. That was the impetus for a group of local Republicans to raise about $800 to start a new paper; W.H. Eagle published the first Republican that year. James G. Bain and Henry Smock became involved and the paper flourished.

By 1889 Bain was the sole stockholder and he bought the Morgan County Reporter which was only three years old. Bain used this as the Daily Reporter to accompany the weekly Republican. He sold this combination to Frank T. Singleton in 1892.

It was twenty years later before the business changed hands again, this time to Harry J. Martin who had worked at newspapers in Franklin, Lebanon and Seymour, Indiana. He kept it until retiring in 1946 when Wilber L. Kendall's Reporter Publishing Co. was formed to buy the business. Kendall had previously worked at the Greensburg News.

Mooresville Times
The Morgan County Vindicator was founded by J.C. Weil and S.H. Long in 1872. It went through many hands before 1889 including the Enterprise, the Herald, the Monitor and lastly the Guide. In 1894 William H. Sage, a teacher from Indianapolis bought the Guide and kept it for thirty-five years, changing the name to the Mooresville Times in 1905.
James L. Richardson and his son, James, Jr., owned it through World War II. Robert F. and Margaret R. Adams owned it from 1954 until they sold it to the Reporter Publishing Co. of Martinsville in 1970.

Today's conglomerate

Reporter Publishing acquired through the years interest or ownership of the Rushville Republican and, in 1970, the Mooreseville Times. That is when the name of the daily edition was changed to the Reporter-Times.

Today the daily Martinsville Daily Reporter and the weekly Mooresville Times are both owned by the same company and printed in the same ink room but are editorially separate.


 
Community Organizations
Wheeler Mission – Indianapolis – 1893-Present - Fighting frostbite for 127 years.

The Door of Hope was started by hardware salesman William V. Wheeler in 1893. He then started a Day Room that would take refugees during the day and then renovated the Dearborn Hotel in downtown Indianapolis that took in families needing shelter.

When Wheeler died in 1908 the charity was renamed to honor him. A larger facility, the Wheeler Mission, was opened in 1922. They started offering youth camps in 1959. Since then it has doubled in size, merged with the Lighthouse Mission and opened a center specifically for women and children.


County Farms
Typically counties rather than the state were the providers of “poor farms”. Most, if not all of these also offered medical services. Some of the larger ones were:
  • Adams County Poor Farm
  • Allen County Infirmary
  • Clay County Poor Farm
  • Delaware County Infirmary
  • Greene County Poorhouse
  • Hendricks County Infirmary
  • Henry County Pauper Asylum
  • Huntington County Infirmary
  • Indiana Farm Colony for Feeble-Minded Youth (Butlervile)
  • Jackson County Infirmary
  • Jay County Infirmary
  • Kosciusko County Infirmary
  • Lake County Poor Asylum
  • La Porte County Asylum
  • Madison County Infirmary
  • Marshall County Home
  • Martin County Poor Farm
  • Orange County Infirmary
  • Owen County Asylum
  • Randolph County Poorhouse
  • Scott County Poor Farm
  • Union County Poorhouse
  • Vigo County Poor Farm

 
Financial Services - Accountants

The Romans had accountants, double-entry bookkeeping was invented in the 13th century in Florence, moved to computers in the 1970s and the word bookkeeping is great fun, having three consecutive double letters.

To most people, that's the excitment of accounting. They think of the field as white shirts and cheap ties, unless the firm does something exceedingly dumb (as in Arthur Anderson, Enron and September, 2008). Maybe that's why there is little history. Whitinger & Co. of Muncie seems to be the oldest firm in Indiana, founded in 1930 by R.J. Whitinger. R.J. Pile LLC claims to be the oldest in Indianapolis, dating to 1938. There are now over eight thousand certified public accountants and accounting firms in Indiana.



Law Firms
Nichols, Wallsmith & Weaver – Knox - 1889-Present - Typical small-town family law practice

James Nichols started in the legal business in Knox in 1889. In 1900 William Pentecost joined him and, when Nichols left town to start another practice in Danville, took over as the sole proprietor. Orville Nichols joined Pentecost in 1914 and stayed in the business until retiring in 1960.

Orville Nichols, Jr. came into the firm in 1948 when it became Nichols & Nichols. In the 1970s David Wallsmith and Charles Weaver became partners. Today the partners are David and Todd Wallsmith and the firm name is Nichols & Wallsmith.



Real Estate


Irvington – Indianapolis - 1870-Present

Sylvester Johnson and Jacob Julian created Indianapolis' suburb Irvington as a high-end village five miles east of downtown. It held fine houses, divided streets and Butler University (from 1875-1928). It also was a bit of an artist enclave.

Centered around the intersection of Washington and Ritter Streets, it was laid out with winding roads, fountains, churches, schools and libraries. It was a complete self-contained city until the area was annexed by Indianapolis in 1902.

Today many of the houses are on the National Register of Historic Places and stores along Washington Street and 10th Street have encircled the enclave, providing a minimal buffer to other neighboring neighborhoods.

Originally no alcohol sales could be made in Irvington by a clause was written into sales contracts but that stipulation recently disappeared with one tavern and a brewery operating.


 
Health

The Indiana Public Health Historic Collections have this pre-prohibition poster (thank you Historic Indianapolis):




Parkview Hospital – Fort Wayne - 1878-Present

Founded as City Hospital, Parkview has expanded to include smaller hospitals in Huntington and LaGrange. The main hospital has 575 beds.



Hill-Rom – Batesville – 1929-Present - Hospital beds from a coffin maker

William Hillenbrand started the original company to make (wood) furniture for hospitals in 1929. October, 1929. Right at the start of the Depression. Hillenbrand marketed his furniture aimed at private rooms and gave the furniture to hospitals on a 6-month trial.
Today Hill-Rom is part of what was the Hillenbrand Industries' holdings before they went public in 2008, spinning off Hill-Rom and the Batesville Casket Co. They have obtained about 650 patents on their products.


 
Home Products

Hoosier Cabinet style desks were also made by
  • Boone - by Campbell-Smith-Ritchie of Lebanon
  • Dutch Kitchenet - by Coppes Brothers & Zook of Napanee
  • Kitchen Maid - by Wasmuth Endicott Co. of Andrews - originated the “Smooth Surface Round Corner” model that was popular in “Snowy White Enamel”
  • McDougall – Frankfort
  • G.I. Sellers & Sons - Kokomo and Elwood
  • Wilson - Greencastle


Services

Howard's Steam Carpet Cleaning Works – Indianapolis - 1876-Present

Howard was a Mr. Howard who's first name has been lost to antiquity. We do know he was raised in New York and moved to Indianapolis in 1865. Fred Miller was the president of the company by 1912.

Previous to Howard's breakthrough of cleaning with steam, dirt was relieved by lemon juice, white bread or a beating on a clothesline. Howard's process saved the wear and tear on rugs and their advertising said all scouring was done by hand. Repairs and Oriental rugs were a specialty.

The company picked up carpets in a wagon and took them to a central plant on the canal where hot water and detergent were used to take out stains much as mobile steam cleaners do through utility trucks today. The canal not only provided a water source, a water wheel provided power for vacuum pumps.


 
Natural Resources

Clay, Bricks, and Pottery

There were many more smaller brickyards across the state. Most of these dried bricks in the sun rather than in kilns.
Aurora
Aurora Brick Works
Montgomery
F.G. Lutes & Son
Brooklyn
Brooklyn Brick Co.
New Albany
Goetz Paving Brick Co.
Carlisle
J.P. Walls
North Vernon
North Vernon Tile Co.
Covington
W.H. Prather
Odon
E.N. Dougherty
H. Smiley & Son
Canut
Williem E. Routt
Poland
F.M. Tapy
Farmersburg
W.C. Bennett
Rockville
Bracken & Elliott
Kokomo
Kokomo Brick Co.
Patricksburg
George G. Kaiser
Indianapolis
Terre Cotta Co.
Quincy
Taber & Moore
Jasper
Nicholas Melchior
Sullivan
J.B. Mullane
James Nichols
Lewis
David McGrew
Shelburn
O'Neal & Sons
Loogootee
William Lawhead
M. Moran & Sons
Vincennes
Vincennes Brick & Tile Co.
Marion
Marion Brick Co.
Washington
Philip Kretz
Riester Brothers.

Coal
Much of this section came from the Indiana Department of Reclamation.
We would like to thank them for their service.
Coal is not renewable like trees (unless you have hundreds of thousands of years to devote to the project). But with the population and industry growing in Indiana coal was a good way to heat houses, steam engines, ovens and to produce electricity. On the east side of the Wabash River at the Illinois border there are seams of coal suitable for surface mining as well as much available only by underground mining. Surprisingly this narrow swathe through ten counties from Vermillion down to Warrick counties makes Indiana one of the top ten coal producing states.

The first recorded note about coal in this region dates back to 1736, found by Indian agent George Croghan. For the rest of the century coal was used for home heating but not for much else. The steamboat New Orleans stopped along the Indiana shore of the Ohio River, probably near Owensboro, to gather coal for its boilers. Captain Nicholas Roosevelt had arranged for coal to be mined and stockpiled by the shore. This boat was caught up in the New Madrid earthquake but survived without damage.

Near the time of the Civil War, underground mining started. Large earth-moving machinery that was engineered for construction of the Panama Canal in the 1880s made surface mining possible but this was not used extensively until after World War II.

Railroads to Terre Haute, Evansville and Indianapolis made the coal accessible throughout the state and the country in the 1910s and the state switched from wood to coal in time to save some small spots of native forest.

Members of the Indiana Coal Producers Association voluntarily started replanting along streams and spoil banks in 1926 and it was made mandatory in 1941. The Indiana Division of Reclamation was formed in 1973 to return to nature the used-up surface mines. The funding of this has been part of the requirements to get a mining permit. Today controversy shows no end regarding stream and air pollution from the mining and use of coal.
Underground coal mining was, as you would think, dangerous. The American Mine Safety Association even gave prizes to the companies with the best rescue resources.

Joseph Brown a miner employed in the Brazil mine of the Jackson Coal Company, was instantly killed while ascending in the cage from the mine. while the cage was in motion he was caught in the machinery in some manner, drawing him between the cage and the wall of the shaft, crushing his body into a shapeless bloody mass. - Brazil, The American Nonconformist October 31, 1895

A lawsuit in 1914 was filed by the town of Sullivan against the Vandalia Coal Co. It asked for $5,000 damages when the underground mine undermined the foundation of a school. (Coal Age, Volume 6. McGraw-Hill. 1914. Page 768)

Some early names among coal companies include: ABC (Yankeetown – closed in 1956), Ackerman (Jasper), Battle Ax (Linton), Big Tree (Evansville), John Bull (Boonville), Cypress Creek (Boonville – Owned by the Vigo Coal Co. Closed in 1998 but may open again), Daurer (Cannelton), Dugger (Dugger), Gladstone (Petersburg), Jackson (Brazil), Suwanee (Evansville), Lindsay (Vincennes). Winslow and Zeller-McClelland (Bridgeton - Closed in 1980).

In 1921 a syndicate run by an eastern railroad consolidated the American (Bicknell), Indian Creek, Oliphant-Johnson (Bruceville) and Vandalia (Bicknell) companies in a ten million dollar stock exchange.
In all, uncountable hundreds of coal mines have existed in Indiana. A 1919 report cites Indiana production at over 2 million tons of coal per month at a retail cost of $6.00 per ton. By 1840 production had risen to 9 million tons and by 1918 that had risen to 30 million tons. (This info from a periodical, The Black Diamond, published by the Black Diamond Co. in 1919.)

No. 1 American Mine – Bicknell – 1912-Present - Century-old record-breaker

The Zeller family ran several mines in the vicinity of Brazil. William M. Zeller was the founder of the No. 1 American Mine in 1912 until his youngest son, Richard D. Zeller took over upon William's retirement in 1923. Richard's brother Larry ran, but did not own, the Knox County Fourth Vein Mine.

In 1917 there were two fires on the site – one destroyed a barn and another the tipple, the unloading site near the entrance to the mine. By the 1920s they had 900 men producing 6,000 tons of coal daily and were the largest in Indiana. In 1926 they extracted 7,157 tons of coal in one 8-hour period, a world record. (Roll, Charles. Indiana: One Hundred and Fifty Years of American Development. Volume 3. 1931.)


 
Transportation
 
Wagons and Buggies


James & Meyer Buggy Co. - Lawrenceburg - 1908-1918

James & Meyer made buckboards, buggies, driving wagons, phaetons, road wagons, runabouts, spring wagons and surreys under the J&M, Horse Show and Red Cross brands. At peak, they had about 100 employees.



Karges Wagon Co. - Evansville - 1903+


Albert F. Karges owned the Karges Furniture Co. that his father founded in the 1860s and started the Globe Furniture Co., the Karges Carriage Co. and was on the board of many other companies in Evansville.

Since horse-drawn wagons were mainly made of wood it was natural for a furniture company to design horse-drawn carts ranging from luxurious vehicles to farm wagons. Karges specialized in heavy-duty transports for the farm, mill, coal mine, and lumber industries.

By 1936 the plant was being used by the Sunbeam Electric Co. and became part of Whirlpool Corp.



La Porte Carriage Co. - La Porte - 1880s-1913+


Located at Indiana Avenue and State Street in the middle of La Porte's business district where the county offices now are located. They made sleighs, “carriages, victorias, surreys, phaetons, traps, stanhopes, buggies, runabouts, road wagons,business wagons, sewing machine wagons, spring wagons, carts and gigs.”

In 1911 some creditors called for a bankruptcy which president J.J. Parkhurst decided to fight. They proved solvency in the appeals court but the company came under the control of a receiver, Orville Truesdell. They then started making bodies for Haynes, Apperson and Chalmers of Detroit. This enterprise wasn't successful and by 1918 they had sold off all the property.


Automobile Manufacturers

W.H. McIntyre Co. - Auburn - 1909-1915

We just wanted to show you an early McIntyre. This appeared in Hemmings Motor News in 1974, for sale for $5,000. The seller said: Buggy style high wheeler painted black with red wheels and undercarriage pin striped in yellow. Solid tires, 2-cylinder engine, very rare. Only 13 remaining and only 2 of this style. $5,000 includes trailer.







Studebaker - South Bend - 1852-1963

We found a nice drawing of the Studebaker plant in a 1913 South Bend Times-News:





Truck and Bus Manufacturers

The Wayne Works – Richmond - 1904-1917

The Wayne Works' roots to back to 1837 in Dublin, Indiana where three Whippo brothers built a foundry and made stoves. The successor to this enterprise was making farm implements in Richmond by the 1870s. One day in 1901 president Walter W. Schultz asked the chief engineer Jack St. John to build a car. It took three years and three prototypes before they were ready to go into production with a 4-cylinder air-cooled 20 hp engine with shaft drive. This same car, complete with a round radiator shell, went unchanged until a water-cooled engine of 25 hp was substituted in 1910.

The chassis and body were upgraded in 1914 when a 6-cylinder 45 hp engine became available. That same year they made a rudimentary school bus on their 123” wheelbase chassis. They wound down the auto line in 1917 and went back continued making farm equipment.

In the 1950s they bought Meteor of Piqua, Ohio that made ambulances, A.J. Miller of Bellefontaine, Ohio that made hearses and Divco of Detroit that made delivery trucks such as the classic milk truck. Later they got into mobile homes and loans. Still, the school bus was the major product. Finished buses and bare chassis could be seen driving east and west on Interstate 70 every day. The conglomerate, then the Richmond Transportation Corp. declared bankruptcy in 1992 and the divisions that still were in production were sold to other conglomerates.